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Lawrenceville, NJ (Dr. Simone) – NUTRITIONAL HYDRATION TM FOR COLD ENVIRONMENTS (excerpt from Nutritional Hydration)
An adequate energy source is most important in a cold environment. The US Military concludes that the energy needed for a person in a cold environment is between 4000 to 5000 kcal because a great amount of energy is required to keep warm. Carbohydrate foods are preferred over fats again because they are easier to use by the body, and glucose and glycogen, made from carbohydrates, are required for the shivering process. Dehydration in a cold environment decreases appetite, and physical and mental performance. Hypothermia symptoms occur when the body temperature falls below 95°F (35°C). Shivering is one of your defenses. Wind chill and wet clothing increase heat loss. Hypothermia causes: usually occurs in the winter but some cases can occur in the summer when you are exposed to cold air and wet conditions with exercise exhaustion, or are immersed into cold water, or consume alcohol and/or barbiturates. Some examples are swimming, scuba diving, sailing and fishing. Mild hypothermia has a core body temperature between 91.5°F (33°C) and 95°F (35°C) that produces maximal shivering, poor judgment, inability to walk and apathy. Moderate hypothermia has a core body temperature between 82.4°F (28°C) and 90°F (32.2°C) that produces, cardiac arrhythmias, decreased heart rate, and no shivering. Severe hypothermiahas a core body temperature less than 82°F (27.8°C) that progressively slows the electrical impulses of the heart and brain as the temperature continues to drop leading to death. Hypothermia Treatment/Therapy: remove wet clothing and increase the body temperature, and transport the patient to a hospital.